1.Red Cross society and  Building codes have cut the number of fires, but staff still think of themselves as firefighters. , Clot-busters work best if patients get them within 30 minutes after getting to the hospital. In cities such as Seattle where CPR training is widespread and defibrillation by EMS personnel follows quickly, the survival rate is about 20 percent for all causes and as high as 57 percent if a witnessed "shockable" arrest.  Chest compression to breathing ratios is set at 30 to 2 in adults. The airway can also become blocked by a foreign object. They may be able to completely resolve a situation if they have the proper training and equipment. Measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide during CPR reflects cardiac output and can predict chances of ROSC. , Further examples occur through history, still mostly related to battle, with examples such as the Knights Hospitaller in the 11th century AD, providing care to pilgrims and knights in the Holy Land. The condition may result in a sudden, severe, crushing, squeezing chest pain/discomfort, Heart disease (blocked blood vessels in the heart), Mid-back pain, or pain between the shoulder blades, Call 911 (or your local emergency number), Take aspirin, unless you are allergic to it, Take nitroglycerin, only if it is prescribed by a physician, If the individual is not breathing or showing any movement, immediately start CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation), Take good control of your blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol levels, Take aspirin, nitroglycerin, as prescribed, Administer CPR, if there is a respiratory distress. First aid done correctly should help reduce the patient's level of pain and calm them down during the evaluation and treatment process. The cause factors of a Heart Attack could include: The signs and symptoms of Heart Attack include: Anyone in close proximity of the affected individual (or the individual himself/herself) can provide First Aid, but a medical professional is required for further treatment. Younger people are far more likely to have CPR attempted on them before the arrival of emergency medical services.  Roman legions had the specific role of capsarii, who were responsible for first aid such as bandaging, and are the forerunners of the modern combat medic. A Heart Attack (Cardiac Arrest or Myocardial Infarction) is the damage caused to the muscles of the heart, due to a block in blood supply to the heart. There is a higher proportion of patients who achieve spontaneous circulation (ROSC), where their heart starts beating on its own again, than ultimately survive to be discharged from hospital (see table above). Chest discomfort that may last more than a few minutes or go away and come back; it may feel like squeezing, fullness, pressure, or pain. Organ donation is usually made possible by CPR, even if CPR does not save the patient.  As a result, the Red Cross updated and endorsed its emergency preparedness application, which uses pictures, text and videos to assist the user. In cases of myocardial infarction (heart attack), during which the person may well remain conscious but which is not by itself a form of arrest, attempting "cough CPR" will increase the workload on the heart and will likely prove harmful. The stent will make sure the blood vessel stays open and does not get blocked again in the future..  Their combined findings were presented at the annual Maryland Medical Society meeting on September 16, 1960 in Ocean City, and gained widespread acceptance over the following decade, helped by the video and speaking tour they undertook. If someone – or even yourself – has displayed the warning signs of a heart attack, follow the below tips in order to offer them first aid. A trend that is developing is the purchase of AEDs to be used in the home, particularly by those with known existing heart conditions. , A study of King County WA patients who had CPR outside hospitals in 1999-2003, where 34% survived to hospital discharge overall, found that among patients with 4 or more major medical conditions, 18% survived; with 3 major conditions 24% survived, and 33% of those with 2 major medical conditions survived. Call 911 (or your local emergency number) immediately, if you are experiencing a Heart Attack. 5% more had moderate mental problems and could still be independent. Blood circulation and oxygenation are required to transport oxygen to the tissues.