It is about 20 light-years above the galactic plane in the Orion Arm. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, and dust (including primordial nuclides). For bodies near the celestial equator, this is equivalent to an apparent diameter of the Sun or the Moon every two minutes; from Earth's surface, the apparent sizes of the Sun and the Moon are approximately the same.  These deposits are used by humans both for energy production and as feedstock for chemical production. Earth has four major main layers: an inner core at the center, an outer core enveloping it, mantle, and crust. It is one thing to reach the summit; it is another to stay there.  In 1980, 50.53 million km2 (19.51 million sq mi) of Earth's land surface consisted of forest and woodlands, 67.88 million km2 (26.21 million sq mi) was grasslands and pasture, and 15.01 million km2 (5.80 million sq mi) was cultivated as croplands.  Due to the efforts of influential Christian scholars and clerics such as James Ussher, who sought to determine the age of Earth through analysis of genealogies in Scripture, Westerners before the 19th century generally believed Earth to be a few thousand years old at most. But at the bottom of the ocean, the crust is thinner and extends about 3 mi / 5 km from the seafloor to the top of the mantle. Depending upon their current orbital positions, either Venus or Mercury are the closest planets to Earth.  It has cognates in every Germanic language, and their ancestral root has been reconstructed as *erþō. Technically, anyone, who goes above it is an “astronaut.”.  68% of the land mass of the world is in the Northern Hemisphere. Earth Day was a unified response to an environment in crisis — oil spills, smog, rivers so polluted they literally caught fire. The development of agriculture, and then civilization, led to humans having an influence on Earth and the nature and quantity of other life forms that continues to this day. , The most widely accepted theory of the Moon's origin, the giant-impact hypothesis, states that it formed from the collision of a Mars-size protoplanet called Theia with the early Earth. , The pedosphere is the outermost layer of Earth's continental surface and is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes. Local topography deviates from this idealized spheroid, although on a global scale these deviations are small compared to Earth's radius: the maximum deviation of only 0.17% is at the Mariana Trench (10,925 metres or 35,843 feet below local sea level), whereas Mount Everest (8,848 metres or 29,029 feet above local sea level) represents a deviation of 0.14%.  Charged particles are contained within the magnetosphere; the plasmasphere is defined by low-energy particles that essentially follow magnetic field lines as Earth rotates. Tell us what you think the way forward for progressive business post Rio+20 is in the comment thread below, John Vidal: Despite the criticisms of the Earth summit in Brazil – many echoing the 1992 meeting – much that was positive emerged, George Monbiot: The post-summit pledge was an admission of defeat against consumer capitalism.  Surface air temperature can rise to around 55 °C (131 °F) in hot deserts, such as Death Valley, and can fall as low as −89 °C (−128 °F) in Antarctica.  The incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones resulted in the development of complex cells called eukaryotes. Three-quarters of the atmosphere's mass is contained within the first 11 km (6.8 mi) of the surface. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia", "Hints of life on what was thought to be desolate early Earth", "Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon", "Oldest fossils ever found show life on Earth began before 3.5 billion years ago", "SIMS analyses of the oldest known assemblage of microfossils document their taxon-correlated carbon isotope compositions", "Freeze, Fry or Dry: How Long Has the Earth Got?  The tectonic plates ride on top of the asthenosphere, the solid but less-viscous part of the upper mantle that can flow and move along with the plates. ", "This is one place on Earth where no life can exist", Interactive 3D visualisation of the Sun, Earth and Moon system, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Earth&oldid=983953141, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Our new online dictionaries for schools provide a safe and appropriate environment for children. Learn more.  Common carbonate minerals include calcite (found in limestone) and dolomite. Earth’s magnetosphere acts as a shield against solar and cosmic particle radiation. The total arable land is 10.9% of the land surface, with 1.3% being permanent cropland. Avviyaar (meaning 'Respectable Woman) was said to be the title of more than one poet who composed poems during different periods of Tamil literature. Ions and electrons of the solar wind are deflected by the magnetosphere; solar wind pressure compresses the dayside of the magnetosphere, to about 10 Earth radii, and extends the nightside magnetosphere into a long tail. Governments have given up on the planet, Economic climate has not affected views on global warming – poll, Rio +20 makes no fresh, green breast of the new world, Rio+20: Tim Jackson on how fear led world leaders to betray green economy, Reframing Rio+20: revisiting the Earth summit children, Reframing Rio+20: revisiting children in Guangzhou, China – video, My Ghanaian grandfather would agree that Rio+20 may yet be a turning point, Rio+20 Earth Summit: campaigners decry final document, About 217 results for Rio+20 Earth summit. The online version of the Collins Dictionary has just been updated again, with another batch of new words and meanings inspired by the events of the summer. Around 1.300.000 Earth’s could fit into the Sun. Near Earth's surface, gravitational acceleration is approximately 9.8 m/s2 (32 ft/s2). Earth – Videos – International Space Station: This page was last edited on 17 October 2020, at 07:40. The gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation. Earth’s outer core is made from liquid metal which conducts electricity. This hypothesis has been termed "Snowball Earth", and it is of particular interest because it preceded the Cambrian explosion, when multicellular life forms significantly increased in complexity. This polar motion has multiple, cyclical components, which collectively are termed quasiperiodic motion. Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 4th Edition.  This allows total and annular solar eclipses to occur on Earth. Lucy Lawless made her name playing Xena: Warrior Princess. , The mass of the oceans is approximately 1.35×1018 metric tons or about 1/4400 of Earth's total mass. Since ancient times the Earth was taught to be at the center of the Universe with the other celestial objects orbiting around it. Due to this recycling, most of the ocean floor is less than 100 Ma old.  Earth is expected to be habitable until the end of photosynthesis about 500 million years from now, but if nitrogen is removed from the atmosphere, life may continue until a runaway greenhouse effect occurs 2.3 billion years from now. The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents: Moreover, important legally binding agreements (Rio Convention) were opened for signature: In order to ensure compliance to the agreements at Rio (particularly the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21), delegates to the Earth Summit established the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). The first edition of Water Quality Assessments, published by WHO/Chapman & Hall, was launched at the Rio Global Forum. Novopangea seems the most likely scenario based on current evaluations. When atmospheric conditions permit an uplift of warm, humid air, this water condenses and falls to the surface as precipitation. The tilt varies between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees, causing seasons and even chaotic seasons. The oldest oceanic crust is located in the Western Pacific and is estimated to be 200 Ma old. The remaining 29.2%, or 148.94 million km2 (57.51 million sq mi), not covered by water has terrain that varies greatly from place to place and consists of mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus, and other landforms.  The earliest direct evidence of life on Earth is contained in 3.45 billion-year-old Australian rocks showing fossils of microorganisms. The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature at the Earth Summit, and made a start towards redefinition of measures that did not inherently encourage destruction of natural ecoregions and so-called uneconomic growth.  As the Moon orbits Earth, different parts of its face are illuminated by the Sun, leading to the lunar phases. The outermost layer – Earth’s crust – goes about 19 mi / 30 km deep on average on land. Looking for fun activities to teach kids about the planet Earth?  The orientation (rather than the angle) of Earth's axis also changes over time, precessing around in a complete circle over each 25,800 year cycle; this precession is the reason for the difference between a sidereal year and a tropical year. Reflections on US Environmental Policy: An Interview with William K. Reilly, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, National Strategy for a Sustainable America, Regional Forum on Environment and Health in Southeast and East Asian countries, United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, "Rio Declaration on Environment and Development", Documents from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (also known as UNCED or the Earth Summit), video: Severn Suzuki, 12 years old, speaks for Environmental Children Organization UNCED 1992, Agenda 21 at the Center for a World in Balance. The northernmost permanent settlement in the world is Alert, on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada (82°28′N).  If all of Earth's crustal surface were at the same elevation as a smooth sphere, the depth of the resulting world ocean would be 2.7 to 2.8 km (1.68 to 1.74 mi). The surface area of Earth is about 197 million square miles / 510 million square kilometers.  Creation myths in many religions involve the creation of Earth by a supernatural deity or deities. Earth provides liquid water—an environment where complex organic molecules can assemble and interact, and sufficient energy to sustain metabolism. Smaller cells incorporated into larger ones and resulted in the development of complex cells called eukaryotes.
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