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", Photoset of lesser visited areas of the Great Wall, Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Wall_of_China&oldid=980796286, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles with Chinese-language sources (zh), Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Arnold, H.J.P, "The Great Wall: Is It or Isn't It?". The Chinese were already familiar with the techniques of wall-building by the time of the Spring and Autumn period between the 8th and 5th centuries BC. There are no surviving historical records indicating the exact length and course of the Qin walls. Wooden gates could be used as a trap against those going through. In ancient time, the south of the Great Wall, the Central Plain mainly maintained the progressive agricultural economy, while the north of the Great Wall, nomadic nation primarily developed the animal husbandry economy. The frontier walls built by different dynasties have multiple courses. [63] In 2014 a portion of the wall near the border of Liaoning and Hebei province was repaired with concrete. Luo, Zewen, et al. Up to 25,000 watchtowers are estimated to have been constructed on the wall. For more than 2,000 years the wall served as a powerful means of protection in the history of China following battles between nomadic and agricultural economies. [29] The Tang and Song dynasties did not undertake any significant effort in the region. Once one fortress was attacked, the reinforcement could be sent there from nearby fortresses and strategic passes quickly along the wall. [71], Veteran U.S. astronaut Gene Cernan has stated: "At Earth orbit of 100 to 200 miles [160 to 320 km] high, the Great Wall of China is, indeed, visible to the naked eye." Barracks, stables, and armories were built near the wall's inner surface. [11] The traditional Chinese mile (里, lǐ) was an often irregular distance that was intended to show the length of a standard village and varied with terrain but was usually standardized at distances around a third of an English mile (540 m). [36] The Manchus quickly seized Beijing, and eventually defeated both the rebel-founded Shun dynasty and the remaining Ming resistance, establishing the Qing dynasty rule over all of China. [69], Leroy Chiao, a Chinese-American astronaut, took a photograph from the International Space Station that shows the wall. [3] Later on, many successive dynasties have built and maintained multiple stretches of border walls. [59], While portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated, in many other locations the Wall is in disrepair. [46] Perhaps the first recorded instance of a European actually entering China via the Great Wall came in 1605, when the Portuguese Jesuit brother Bento de Góis reached the northwestern Jiayu Pass from India. The wall was constructed to protect China from its enemies and the northern invaders most likely the Mongols who were a tribal group that carried out raids in the region. [42] He wrote that the wall is "sixty days' travel" from Zeitun (modern Quanzhou) in his travelogue Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling. Collectively, they stretch from Liaodong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, from the present-day Sino–Russian border in the north to Tao River (Taohe) in the south; along an arc that roughly delineates the edge of the Mongolian steppe. Gradually, they admitted and accepted the advanced culture of Han nation. (1981). By Benjamin Elisha Sawe on September 22 2017 in Society. In this case, this defense line was further strengthened to protect the people and territory. The Great Wall of China was constructed over a long period and not all at once. Here the first major walls erected during the Ming dynasty cut through the Ordos Desert to the eastern edge of the Yellow River loop. All these walls were built to defend their territories. However, it is not a simple isolated anterior wall, but a network of gateways, fortresses, and customs offices, forming a complete defense system. In some places, the height of the wall has been reduced from more than 5 m (16 ft 5 in) to less than 2 m (6 ft 7 in). Its purpose, however, was not defense but rather to prevent Han Chinese migration into Manchuria. Michaud, Roland and Sabrina (photographers), & Michel Jan, Migratory Bird Sanctuaries along the Coast of, This page was last edited on 28 September 2020, at 14:21. On the other hand, the so-called Willow Palisade, following a line similar to that of the Ming Liaodong Wall, was constructed by the Qing rulers in Manchuria. The Great Wall protected both the cultural progress and economic development through safe guarding trading routes such as the Silk Road and securing transportation together with the transmission of information. Millions of people constructed the Great Wall of China over time. [70], A more controversial question is whether the Wall is visible from low Earth orbit (an altitude of as little as 160 km (100 mi)). Why did they build the Great Wall of China? The claim that the Great Wall is visible from the moon also appears in 1932's Ripley's Believe It or Not! At the edge of the Bohai Gulf is Shanhai Pass, considered the traditional end of the Great Wall and the "First Pass Under Heaven". The labor force that worked on the wall comprised of war prisoners, slaves, workers, soldiers, convicts, and peasants who had been recruited forcefully. [61] Parts have been destroyed to make way for construction or mining. Unlike the earlier fortifications, the Ming construction was stronger and more elaborate due to the use of bricks and stone instead of rammed earth. NASA claims that it is barely visible, and only under nearly perfect conditions; it is no more conspicuous than many other man-made objects.

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